Minggu, 15 Mei 2011

PARIJATA - पारिजात - SRIGADING - 夜花 - Night-flowering Jasmine

PARIJATA - पारिजात - SRIGADING - 夜花 - Night-flowering Jasmine



Krishna Uproots the Parijata Tree, Folio from Bhagavata Purana (Ancient Stories of the Lord), 1525-1550 Painting

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/Parijata.jpg          



PARIJATA - पारिजात - SRIGADING - 夜花 - Night-flowering Jasmine


Srigading merupakan pohon kecil atau semak yang biasa ditanam di pekarangan rumah. Tumbuhan yang berasal dari Asia Selatan ini tidak berbentuk indah namun ditanam karena harum bunganya yang menyeruak di malam hari. Dengan warna mahkota bunga yang khas, bunganya mekar setelah matahari terbenam. Pada siang hari bunga yang mekar pada malam sebelumnya luruh.

 Pertelaan

Pohon kecil atau semak. Batang lunak dengan permukaan kasar, agak bergabus. Daun tersusun berselang-seling, tunggal, dengan bentuk bundar telur, ujung meruncing, permukaannya kasar, tepinya rata, kadang-kadang beringgit. Bunganya harum, dengan mahkota bunga lima hingga delapan berwarna putih tetapi di bagian tengahnya jingga cerah, tersusun secara berkelompok. Buahnya bertipe kendaga bundar berbentuk hati, pipih, dengan diameter 2cm, dengan dua ruang, masing-masing berisi satu biji.

 Pemanfaatan

Selain sebagai tanaman hias pekarangan, srigading ditanam di pekuburan di Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur sebagai pengharum lingkungan, mendampingi kamboja. Bunganya dapat menghasilkan warna kuning yang sulit dihilangkan, sehingga dijadikan sumber pewarna kuning. Selain itu, bunga yang kering kadang-kadang dicampurkan pada seduhan teh sebagai pengharum.
Biji, bunga, dan daun mengandung bahan-bahan pemicu imunitas, pelindung hati, anticacing, antivirus dan antijamur. [1] Daunnya dipakai dalam pengobatan Ayurweda.
Srigading juga masuk dalam mitologi India dalam kisah kehidupan Krishna.

 Rujukan

  1. ^ Puri, A., Saxena, R., Saxena, R. P., Saxena, K. C., Srivastava, V., & Tandon, J. S. Immunostimulant activity of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. J. Ethnopharmacol. 42 (1): 31-37. Abstract

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Srigading           


PARIJATA - SRIGADING - 夜花 - Night-flowering Jasmine


Names and symbolism

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (sometimes incorrectly cited as Nyctanthes arbortristis or Nyctanthes arbor tristis) is commonly known as
  • Night-flowering Jasmine
  • Coral Jasmine
  • Parijat (also spelled Paarijat or Paarijaata [4])
  • Harsingar [4]
  • Shephalika, Parijatha, Parijataka, Ragapushpi, Kharapatraka, Prajakta, Nalakumkumaka, Harshingarapushpak, Suklangi, Rajanihasa, Malika, Aparajitha, Vijaya, Nisahasa, Praharshini, Pravalanalika, Vathari, bhoothakeshi, Seetamanjari, Subaha, Nishipushpika (in Sanskrit)
  • Shiuli/Shefali (in Bengali)
  • Pavazha malli in Tamil (Also spelled pavaza malli or pavala malli)
  • Prajakta or Prajakt in Sanskrit
  • Ganga Shiuli in Odisha
The tree is sometimes called the "tree of sorrow", because the flowers lose their brightness during daytime; the scientific name arbor-tristis also means "sad tree". The flowers can be used as a source of yellow dye for clothing. The flower is the official flower of the state of West Bengal, India, and for Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyctanthes_arbor-tristis#Names_and_symbolism            



PARIJATA - पारिजात - SRIGADING - 夜花 - Night-flowering Jasmine


Medicinal use of Parijata

The natives of Chhattisgarh are aware of medicinal uses of all parts of Parijat.
  • They use the seeds in treatment of Bavasir (Piles). Daily one seed with water is recommended as treatment. This treatment is continued up to complete cure. The seeds are crushed and aqueous paste is prepared. The patients suffering from piles are advised by the natives to apply fresh paste externally on piles, along with the internal use of seeds. This treatment is simple and very effective.
  • In treatment of gout, the natives use the decoction of Parijat flowers. This decoction is given up to one week during the time of attack. As treatment, it is given up to one month in a year. The natives of Sarguja region use the leaves of Parijat in many ways.
  • In treatment of dry cough, the leaf juice with Shahad (Honey) is given internally.
  • The aqueous paste of leaves is used externally in treatment of skin related troubles specifically in treatment of ring worm.
  • The natives of Bastar region, prepare a special herbal oil by boiling fresh leaves in Sarson (Mustard) oil and use it externally in treatment of same troubles.
  • The natives of Chhattisgarh Plains, use the leaf juice with Namak (Common salt) in treatment of intestinal worms. According to them, seven regular doses (once in a day) can flush out all the worms effectively.
  • The young leaves of Parijat are used as female tonic.
  • The patients having gynaecological troubles are advised to take three fresh leaves of Parijat with 5 Black Pipper (Kali Mirch). This combination is recommended up to three days in a month.
  • According to the natives using this combination, this is a boon for the patients at initial stages. In case of complications, the natives consult the traditional healers.
  • The natives of Bagbahera region, use the decoction of Parijat seeds as hair tonic and wash the hairs daily in order to get rid from dandruff and lice.
  • The natives of Durg region specifically from Patan region, informed me that leaf juice is a safe purgative for infants. They also use it in combination with other herbs in treatment of chronic fevers.
This is positive sign that the natives having rich traditional medicinal knowledge about Parijat are still using this herb as medicine and planting this herb in their home gardens. By this act, they are transferring and making aware the upcoming generation about the valuable medicinal properties and uses of Parijat.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyctanthes_arbor-tristis#Medicinal_use_of_Parijata             



PARIJATA - पारिजात - SRIGADING - 夜花 - Night-flowering Jasmine


Mythology


Parijat appears in several Hindu myths. In one myth, which appears in Bhagavata Purana, the Mahabharata and the Vishnu Purana, Parijat appeared as the result of the Samudra manthan (Churning of the Milky Ocean). In another myth, Parijat was brought to earth by Krishna from Indra's garden.

In Hindu mythology, there is a story involving Lord Krishna about a parijat and Krishna's two wives, Satyabhama and Rukmini. Satyabhama wanted this "Parijat" tree from the Heaven to be planted in her garden. Rukmini too, took a fancy to the flower. Krishna, wanting to keep both his wives happy, planted this tree so that the flowers fell in Rukmini’s garden while the tree remained in Satyabhama’s garden.[citation needed]

The tree was planted in the garden of Indra, the Lord of Heavens. Even as Krishna stole a branch of the tree he was spotted by Indra. However, Indra desisted from placing a curse on Krishna since he was an incarnation of Vishnu. Still, Indra put forth a curse on the stolen branch that it will never bear fruit even though the flowers may bloom on the tree. Since the day the tree was planted at Barabanki (the wives' garden), it flowers but does not reproduce, because it has no seeds and the branch cannot take root. It is a yellow coloured flower that blooms in the month of August.
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Not only the tree has high medicinal values in Ayurveda and is divine to Hindus, but also has its share of stories of its romantic origin. According to Hindu mythology, Parijathaka a princess was in love with sun and failed to win his heart,even after trying a lot. So She committed suicide and from her ashes rose the tree parijatha. Unable to stand the sight of her love, she blooms only during night and sheds all the flowers(resembling tears) before the sun rises or with the touch of very first sun rays. The highly fragrant flowers bloom during night spreading there essence all to the surroundings. The courtyards filled with these flowers in the very morning is a bliss to eyes and their aroma arises your spirit. These are apparently only flowers that Hindus offer to GOD picked from the ground instead of plucking from the tree.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyctanthes_arbor-tristis#Mythology              



PARIJATA - पारिजात - SRIGADING - 夜花 - Night-flowering Jasmine


Pharmacology

The seeds, flowers and leaves possesses
The leaves have been used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat
  • sciatica,
  • arthritis,
  • fevers,
  • various painful conditions and
  • as laxative.[6]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyctanthes_arbor-tristis#Pharmacology               



PARIJATA - पारिजात - SRIGADING - 夜花 - Night-flowering Jasmine


Chemical constituents

Leaves:
Flowers:
  • Essential oil,
  • nyctanthin,
  • d-mannitol,
  • tannin,
  • glucose,
  • carotenoid,
  • glycosides
    • Viz β-monogentiobioside ester of α - crocetin (or crocin-3),
    • β-monogentiobioside -β-D monoglucoside ester of α-crocetin,
    • β-digentiobioside ester of α-crocetin (or crocin-1).
Seeds:
  • Arbortristoside A&B,
  • Glycerides of
    • linoleic oleic,
    • lignoceric,
    • stearic,
    • palmitic and
    • myristic acids,
  • nyctanthic acid,
  • 3-4 secotriterpene acid,
  • A water soluble polysaccharide composed of D-glucose and D mannose.
Bark:
  • Glycosides and
  • alkaloids.
Stem:
  • Glycoside-naringenin-4’-0-β-glucapyranosyl-α-xylopyranoside and
  • β-sitosterol.
Flower oil:
  • α-pinene,
  • p-cymene,
  • 1- hexanol methyl heptanone,
  • phenyl acetaldehyde,
  • 1-deconol and anisaldehyde.
Plant:
  • 2,3,4,6-tetra-0-methyl-D-glucose,
  • 2,3,6 tri-0-methyl-D-glucose,
  • 2,3,6-tri-0-methyl-D-mannose,
  • 2,3,-di-0-methyl-d-mannose,
  • arbortristoside A,B,C and
  • iridoid glycoside

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyctanthes_arbor-tristis#Pharmacology               


PARIJATA - पारिजात - SRIGADING - 夜花 - Night-flowering Jasmine


http://toptropicals.com/catalog/uid/nyctanthes_arbortristis.htm         

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